This partnership agreement is suitable either for the establishment of a new partnership or for formalising an existing partnership.
It deals with partnership capital, profits and losses, drawings by partners, conduct of partnership business and decision-making including provisions relating to deadlock.
This eleven page document contains 21 clauses covering
- definitions and interpretations
- establishment of partnership
- principal office and property
- profits and losses
- partnership loans
- conduct of partnership business
- good faith
- restriction on partners
- partnership bank
- termination, retirement and death
- post termination provisions
- disputes, deadlock and governing law
- the scope of the agreement
You need this contract if you want to establish a two-person partnership, or formalize an existing partnership, and want to set out your relationship to the other parties, your mutual obligations, and the rules governing the conduct of your partnership.
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The date to be inserted on page 1 is the date on which both the partners have signed the Agreement.
The full names and permanent address of both partners should be inserted on Page 1.
One of the two introductory sentences should be deleted, depending on whether this is a new business or whether the partnership already exists but there is not yet any formal partnership agreement
There are various details to be inserted here including the date to which the annual accounts are made up, and a brief description of the business
The interest rate to be inserted is the rate of interest payable on partnership capital by the partnership to the individual partners. Since partners frequently raise capital by borrowing from a bank, it is usual for the interest rate under a partnership agreement to be slightly more than the rate which each partner has to pay to his bank.
The name of the bank to be inserted in the definition of interest rate will usually be a bank with which the partnership has an account.
2. ESTABLISHMENT OF PARTNERSHIP
This clause simply states the date on which the partnership comes into effect. If it already exists, then the effective date of the Agreement shall be inserted as per the second alternative.
3. NAME, PRINCIPAL OFFICE AND PROPERTY
In clause 3.1 the name of the business is to be inserted and in clause 3.2 the head office address should be inserted. Clause 3.3 makes it clear that the premises of the partnership (the “Property“) and office furniture and equipment is held by the partnership. Where the partnership’s premises or furniture/equipment are held in the name of one partner it is made clear that that partner holds such property in trust for the partnership. If there is some other arrangement – e.g. one partner owns the property where the business is carried on and charges rent to the partnership, then this clause would need some adjustment.
In this clause the amount of capital which each partner has to contribute should be inserted. The percentage contribution of each partner is also shown, since this can be relevant if percentages are used in relation to voting rights
Clause 4.2 makes it clear that any additional capital is to be contributed in the same proportions as the initial capital, and clause 4.3 underlines this.
Clause 4.4 deals with the entitlement of the partners to receive interest on their respective shares of capital.
5. PROFITS AND LOSSES
It is usual for profits and losses to be shared in the same proportions as the capital contributions but this is not always the case.
The percentage share of each partner should be inserted in clause 5.1.
Under clause 5.2, if there are any expenses which partners might incur but which are not to be treated as expenses of the partnership, then some adjustment to clause 5.2 might be required.
It is usual for partnerships to arrange that each partner can withdraw a regular monthly amount on account of his share of profits, similar to a monthly salary. This clause deals with this matter, and makes it clear that if there is not enough money in the account, drawings cannot be taken. Similarly, any partner who withdraws more than his profit share for a year must immediately repay the surplus – with interest if the words in square brackets are retained.
Often, but not always, a partnership will retain part of its profits to meet the anticipated income tax liabilities of each partner and arrange for the partnership’s accountant to settle income tax liabilities with the Revenue & Customs. Clause 6.3 provides that where the tax liability of an individual partner is less than anticipated the balance of any sum reserved is to be returned to that partner. Similarly where a tax rebate is received by a partner in respect of partnership profits he is obliged to repay that rebate to the partnership. Advice from accountants is recommended on this clause and generally in relation to the financial aspects of the agreement.
7. PARTNERSHIP LOANS
This clause contains a reference to the possibility of one or both partners making a loan to the partnership and in that case, interest at the agreed rate will be payable. Clause 7.2 provides that a loan must be repaid on notice – six months is suggested in our clause.
In practice, if a partner does make a loan to the partnership, it would be sensible to have a separate loan agreement dealing with these issues in more detail. ContractStore has some loan agreement templates.
8. CONDUCT OF PARTNERSHIP BUSINESS
This is one of the most important clauses as it deals with the day-to-day management of the partnership, and how decisions are arrived at.
Clauses 8.1 and 8.2 deal with frequency of meetings and who may call a meeting
Whereas in partnerships of 3 or more partners it is prudent to identify those matters that require the consent of all partners and to distinguish such matters from those that may be agreed by a majority of partners, this is usually inappropriate and impractical for a partnership of 2 partners. Thus clause 8.3 requires all matters relating to the partnership to be agreed by both partners. If one partner is to have decision making authority on certain issues the wording would need to be adjusted to deal with this.
In addition to considerations of practicality, under the law, individual partners have joint and several liability, i.e. a debt incurred on behalf of the partnership by one partner can result in either of the partners becoming liable to the creditor for that debt. Unanimous agreement thus gives protection to both partners.
Clauses 8.4 to 8.6 deal with the procedures relating to meetings and decision making.
9. GOOD FAITH
This clause sets out some general obligations on the partners – to devote all their time to the business, to promote the interests of the partnership etc.
If either of the partners is only involved on a part-time basis, or if a partner has an interest in another business, then appropriate wording should be inserted to make it clear that the particular circumstances are acceptable to the partnership
10. RESTRICTION ON PARTNERS
Following on from the previous clause, clause 10 imposes a number of specific restrictions on partners: serious harm can be done to a business if one of the partners, without any consultation, makes commitments to third parties, and this clause is intended to avoid those risks. In addition, clause10.2 requires a partner who fails to comply to indemnify the other partner so that he does not suffer loss – i.e. to make good that loss.
11. PARTNERSHIP BANK
The name and address of the bank should be inserted in clause 11.1. The signing arrangements are dealt with in clause 11.2.
This clause provides not only for proper accounts to be maintained but also for a balance sheet and profit and loss account to be prepared each year. The firm’s external accountants will prepare the annual accounts which will be signed off by the partners. Adequate provision for reserves, etc, will normally be agreed on the recommendation of the accountants and this topic is covered by clause 12.3.
Relevant details need to be inserted here. This clause may also be revised to provide for a partner to receive maternity or paternity leave if required.
It is important for every business to have adequate insurance in place. The list in clause 14.2 is indicative only and it needs to be tailored to the business. For example, professional indemnity insurance will normally only apply where the partnership is a firm of professional consultants who might become liable for a negligence claim. If the partnership business is manufacturing, product liability insurance may be appropriate.
Note too that the obligation to insure property of the partnership extends to property held in the name of one partner in trust for the partnership.
15. TERMINATION, RETIREMENT AND DEATH
A fairly long notice period, usually at least six months, and sometimes as long as a year, is customary, when a partner wishes to leave. For accounting reasons, it is helpful for the date of a partner’s retirement to coincide with the date of the end of the accounting year.
A compulsory retirement age is covered under clause 15.2. Careful thought needs to be given to the selection of a compulsory retirement age as the partnership may face a claim for age discrimination. As a general rule we do not advise opting for a compulsory retirement age under 65. Under the age discrimination rules introduced in 2006 in the UK, a partnership does not in fact have any right to fix even 65 as a compulsory retirement age. Legal advice is recommended here.
Upon the death of a partner the partnership will be automatically dissolved.
A partner, who becomes bankrupt, commits a material breach of the Agreement etc., can be required to leave the partnership if the other partner gives him notice. The consequence of this will be to dissolve the partnership. We have inserted wording at the end of clause 15.4 designed to prevent the partner who is given notice from carrying on in competition for a period to be specified in the agreement.
16. CONSEQUENCES OF TERMINATION
This clause sets out the need for a set of accounts to be prepared on dissolution of the partnership. The partners will be entitled to whatever is shown as being due to them in those accounts (see in particular clause 16.2).
Advice from accountants on the wording of this clause is recommended. Under 16.3, the same accounting principles will be applied to the termination accounts as to the annual accounts
Note at clause 16.5 that where partnership property is held in the name of a partner in trust for the partnership (see clause 3.3) the other partner is given the option to purchase that property before it is put up for public auction.
The formalities required for giving notice under the Agreement are dealt with here
18. DISPUTES DEADLOCK AND GOVERNING LAW
In a partnership of two partners it is advisable to have a formal means to resolve any potential deadlock.
This clause provides for either a two or three-stage dispute resolution process – negotiation, mediation and, finally, should the parties agree to include this option, arbitration. Ultimately if at the end of the deadlock procedure the partners are still unable to reconcile their differences, the only realistic option is for the partnership to be dissolved.
An alternative to arbitration is to refer the dispute to the courts but in the case of a partnership, litigation between partners could attract publicity and damage the business – arbitration offers a confidential way of dealing with major disputes.
The Agreement is governed by English law.
19. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
This clause makes it clear that any previous agreements or other arrangements agreed between the partners are of no effect once the Partnership Agreement has been signed.
A “Boilerplate” clause which deals with the possibility of one of the terms becoming invalid for some reason. For information on Boilerplate Clauses see our Free Document Z159.
Another “Boilerplate” provision, which makes it clear that if one of the partners is let off the hook even if he has committed some breach of the Agreement, that will not prevent the other partners from later taking whatever action is allowed under the Agreement .
Each partner should sign the Agreement in the presence of an independent witness. Assuming each partner wants a signed copy, two copies of the Agreement in its final form should be prepared and signed by both partners and witnessed.
Note that it is usual in England & Wales for a partnership agreement to be signed as a Deed – in which case the signature clause should be worded to this effect – see the alternative wording in square brackets. A deed is a document that is legally binding even if there is no consideration. It used to require the seal of the signatory to be affixed but nowadays all it requires is an independent witness who should sign after the signatory and then add his/her address and occupation. The same individual can witness more than one signature.